This posting is posted to complete my previous posting, Theories in Teaching English Students. There I have written down five points. Now, I will immediately start from the sixth one:
6. A focus on the individuality of learners and individual learning styles and strategies.
On studying the learning process of human, we got to know people have different types of leaning according to different matter, contents and subject of learning. Individual also differs a lot in learning. While we all exhibit inherently human traits of learning, every individual approaches a problem or learns a set of facts or organize a combination of feelings from a unique perspective.
Another reflected theory is the intelligence theory. According to Gardener and Sternberg, intelligence can be divided into many forms. Gardener attaches important attributes to the notion of intelligence, attributes that could be crucial to second language success. For example, musical intelligence could explain the relative ease that some learners have in perceiving and producing the intonation patterns of a language.
Another thing I would like to add is the cognitive ability and comprehensive ability varies in different age groups.
Therefore, according the different intelligence each student possesses, the teaching should also vary to bring out the best result.
7. A focus on the intellectual involvement of learners in the learning process and in content.
We have already learnt the relationship between language and thought in L1 acquisition and got to know how each of them affects the other. Therefore, the study on the intellectual involvement is important to language acquisition.
Another point is that by broadly defining intelligence as Gardener and Sternberg have done, we can more easily identify the relationship between intelligence and second language acquisition. Intelligence may have little to do with the success of L2 acquisition, but Gardener attaches important attributes to the notion of intelligence, attributes that could be crucial to second language success. For example, Interpersonal intelligence is of obvious importance in the communicative process. Musical intelligence could explain the relative ease that some learners have in perceiving and producing the intonation patterns of a language. Therefore, according the different intelligence involvement, the teaching should also be adjusted.
8. A focus on socio-cultural and affective dimensions of language learning and the humanistic classroom.
Since each individual exhibits inherently human traits of learning, every individual approaches a problem or learns a set of facts or organize a combination of feelings from a unique perspective and reflect on interaction with others. Therefore, a person from a different culture and society has a different attitude towards a same thing. Their learning style and strategies would also vary because of their culture.
The Communicative Language Teaching holds the view that language includes both communicative competence and sociolinguistic competence. Sociolinguistic competence refers to the competence of properly understand and express an utterance in a specific social linguistic environment.
Language is the media of culture, learning a language is aimed at understanding the country. Without the understanding of culture in its social surrounding, a language can hardly be understood. The culture input in SLA is a vital component.
9. A focus on the special language needs of particular groups of language learners.
Based on conditioning operant, since language teaching and leaning differs with each individual, language learning should meet the need of learners in order to drive the motivation. Krashen emphasized the importance of emotional element in his The Affective Filter Hypothesis. According to him, learners decide which material to learn based on their motivations, needs, interests, etc. emotional elements. Besides, he regard language acquisition to be a difficult process, any material that does not fit the learner’ need and interest would fail.
10. A focus on the creative use of technology in second language learning and teaching.
Language acquisition requires a certain language environment (community) and language input to achieve. Therefore, it is important to create the language environment and provide the vital language input is two very important conditions. Therefore, as the media of rich language and messages, IT technology and other multimedia technology undoubtedly assisted the L2 language acquisition. Through the creative usage of different technology, we can effectively input a lot of language, culture large amount of information and activate the learner’s motivation as well as create the suitable environment.
Some practical example includes using multimedia materials to let the learner learn through physical experience, let them listen, watch, comprehends at the same time.
On internet, there are large numbers of excellent resources that can drive the learners to noticed input. For example, in China, we often browse some newspaper or English study online site to get good original articles for reading, writing practice or for teaching purpose. (E.g. China Daily: http：/ / www. china daily. com. cn, the 21st Century: http：/ / www.21st century. com. cn) We also got a lot of useful information on the usage of a certain word, phrase or slang from online dictionary. We can also practice our listening by online listening practice, or even English songs and movies.
11. A focus on teachers as managers of language-learning experiences, not as drill leaders and presenters of material.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) regards the communicative competence develops depending on students’ inner element. In a communicative class, the traditional teacher’s role as an instructor diminished. Teachers are not regarded as a “knowledge disseminator” but to help the students’ in their learning. Nevertheless, student should be the center of the whole teaching and learning process.
But teachers still have an important role. They should support the students in knowledge and in psychology. It’s their responsibility to observe and analysis different student’s shortage and adjusts the teaching to improve that. This new role is even more demanding than the traditional one. Teachers are required to have high ability in observing, analyzing, integrating teaching materials and arranging the class.Harmer identifies this new role as: controller, assessor, organizer, prompter, participant and resource. Therefore, in classroom teaching, teacher should comprehend these roles as a leader in the learning, an arranger, then at the same time, a participant and learner.